Aortic Aneurysm is the term for any swelling of the aorta 1.5 times more than the normal size; it occurs due to weakness of the wall of the aorta. Though it keeps on increasing in size for long time, it sometimes can rupture leading to sudden death.
Aortic aneurysm can occur if the aorta becomes atherosclerotic, It can also occurs in certain diseases like Marfan’s syndrome etc. Sometimes sudden dissection or separation of the layers of the wall of the aorta can lead to dissecting aneurysm.
Most of the time aortic aneurysm can be a symptomatic. It is sometimes detected on a routine X-ray etc., chest pain, back pain or abdominal pain can occur. Acute severe pain in the chest with collapse can occur in dissection. Sometimes hoarseness of voice may occur with large aneurysm.
Aortic aneurysm depending on the area of swelling and management can be classified as:
- Ascending Aorta Aneurysm
- Descending Thoracic Aorta aneurysm
- Abdominal aorta aneurysm
Ascending aorta, arch of aorta aneurysms need open heart surgery for treatment.
Descending Thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta aneurysm both can be treated by either surgery or endovascular stent graft placement. In endovascular graft the graft is placed via a femoral artery catheter into the diseased area.
This method carries low risk and specially suited for patient who are old, sick and have other co-morbid conditions. It is also important that in small aneurysm tight blood pressure control decreases the rate of expansion of a aneurysm.